Drugs used to treat obesity are called 降食慾藥（英語：Anorectic）（anorectic）, and generally include drugs that follow the general definition of a stimulant but other drugs such as CB1受體（英語：CB1 receptor）（CB1 receptor）antagonists exist in this class too. Drugs used to treat sleep disorders such as excessive daytime sleepiness are called eugeroic（英語：eugeroic）s, and include notable stimulants such as modafinil. Stimulants are used in impulse control disorders such as ADHD and off label in mood disorders such as major depressive disorder to increase energy, focus and elevate mood. Stimulants such as epinephrine,theophylline and salbutamol orally have been used to treat asthma, but inhaled adrenergic drugs are now preferred due to less systemic side effects. Many drugs have historically been used to treat nasal congestion from the stimulant class, however concerns about safety and abuse potential have led to mostly the use of pseudoephedrine to treat nasal congestion.
^Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Berridge CW. The Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Psychostimulants Involve Direct Action in the Prefrontal Cortex. Biol. Psychiatry. June 2015, 77 (11): 940–950. PMID 25499957. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.09.013. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Findings from this research unambiguously demonstrate that the cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve the preferential elevation of catecholamines in the PFC and the subsequent activation of norepinephrine α2 and dopamine D1 receptors. ... This differential modulation of PFC-dependent processes across dose appears to be associated with the differential involvement of noradrenergic α2 versus α1 receptors. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers (improving PFC-dependent function). This information has potentially important clinical implications as well as relevance for public health policy regarding the widespread clinical use of psychostimulants and for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other conditions associated with PFC dysregulation. ... In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response inhibition, whereas maximal suppression of overt behavior and facilitation of attentional processes occurs at higher doses.
^Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis. J. Cogn. Neurosci. January 2015: 1–21. PMID 25591060. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. ... The results of this meta-analysis ... do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.