利用載體讓伏隔核中的ΔJunD充分破表，可以使由長期藥物濫用所致的漸進式神經元和行為改變完全停止。（比如說：ΔFosB所致的改變）。  ΔFosB也在人們於天然酬賞（英語：natural reward）（natural reward）中的行為反應調節上扮演重要的腳色。天然酬賞（natural rewards）包含：美味的食物（palatable food）、性愛（sex）、運動（exercise）、......。  因為天然酬賞以及成癮性藥物皆會激發（英語：inducible gene）ΔFosB（這些酬賞讓大腦刺激ΔFosB的增加。原文：i.e., they cause the brain to produce more of it），長期過度地從事上述行為將可能導致類似的成癮之病理生理（pathological）。 
In general, there is no significant interaction when consuming amphetamine with food, but the pH of gastrointestinal content and urine affects the absorption and excretion of amphetamine, respectively. Acidic substances reduce the absorption of amphetamine and increase urinary excretion, and alkaline substances do the opposite. Due to the effect pH has on absorption, amphetamine also interacts with gastric acid reducers such as proton pump inhibitors and H2 antihistamines, which increase gastrointestinal pH (i.e., make it less acidic).
Amphetamine enters the presynaptic neuron across the neuronal membrane or through DAT. Once inside, it binds to TAAR1 or enters synaptic vesicles through VMAT2. When amphetamine enters the synaptic vesicles through VMAT2, dopamine is released into the cytosol (yellow-orange area). When amphetamine binds to TAAR1, it reduces postsynaptic neuron firing rate via potassium channels（英語：G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel） and triggers protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, resulting in DAT phosphorylation. PKA-phosphorylation causes DAT to withdraw into the presynaptic neuron (internalize) and cease transport. PKC-phosphorylated DAT may either operate in reverse or, like PKA-phosphorylated DAT, internalize and cease transport. Amphetamine is also known to increase intracellular calcium, an effect which is associated with DAT phosphorylation through a CAMKIIα（英語：CAMKIIα）-dependent pathway, in turn producing dopamine efflux.
Dextroamphetamine is a more potent agonist of TAAR1 than levoamphetamine. Consequently, dextroamphetamine produces greater CNS stimulation than levoamphetamine, roughly three to four times more, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects.
Similar to dopamine, amphetamine dose-dependently increases the level of synaptic norepinephrine, the direct precursor of epinephrine. Based upon neuronal TAAR1 mRNA expression, amphetamine is thought to affect norepinephrine analogously to dopamine. In other words, amphetamine induces TAAR1-mediated efflux and non-competitive reuptake inhibition at phosphorylated NET, competitive NET reuptake inhibition, and norepinephrine release from VMAT2.
Amphetamine exerts analogous, yet less pronounced, effects on serotonin as on dopamine and norepinephrine. Amphetamine affects serotonin via VMAT2 and, like norepinephrine, is thought to phosphorylate SERT via TAAR1. Like dopamine, amphetamine has low, micromolar affinity at the human 5-HT1A receptor（英語：5-HT1A receptor）.
其他的中樞神經遞質、肽、和激素 Other neurotransmitters, peptides, and hormones[編輯]
^"Adderall"是一個品牌名稱。因為以下幾個安非他命的異構物的英文名稱太長了：("dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine aspartate")，因此本文單獨以此名稱來表示此安非他命的此種混合物。
原文對照："Adderall" is a brand name as opposed to a nonproprietary name; because the latter ("dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine aspartate" ) is excessively long, this article exclusively refers to this amphetamine mixture by the brand name.
^「安非他命」一詞也意指一個化學分類，但與「替代性安非他命」這個化學分類不同的是，「安非他命」類在學術上並無標準的定義。  有一個「安非他命」類的定義嚴格限定分類中僅有：安非他命的racemate and enantiomers 和 甲基安非他命methamphetamine的racemate and enantiomers。  大多數「安非他命」類的定義為那些在藥理學上以及結構上與安非他命相關的化合物。 
為避免讓amphetamine 和 amphetamines 把讀者給弄糊塗了，本條目中僅會使用amphetamine、amphetamines來表示racemic amphetamine, levoamphetamine, and dextroamphetamine；『替代性安非他命（substituted amphetamines）』來表示安非他命的結構分類。
原文對照： Due to confusion that may arise from use of the plural form, this article will only use the terms "amphetamine" and "amphetamines" to refer to racemic amphetamine, levoamphetamine, and dextroamphetamine and reserve the term "substituted amphetamines" for its structural class.
^原文：Consequently, ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are compulsive sexual behaviors that result from excessive sexual activity and amphetamine use.
^ 5.05.15.25.3Glennon RA. Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related agents. (編) Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W. Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry 7th. Philadelphia, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2013: 646–648 [2015-09-11]. ISBN 9781609133450. The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... Amphetamine can also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to p-hydroxyamphetamine. ... Subsequent oxidation at the benzylic position by DA β-hydroxylase affords p-hydroxynorephedrine. Alternatively, direct oxidation of amphetamine by DA β-hydroxylase can afford norephedrine.
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^ 9.09.1Cashman JR, Xiong YN, Xu L, Janowsky A. N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. March 1999, 288 (3): 1251–1260. PMID 10027866.
^ 16.016.1Biological Half-Life. AMPHETAMINE. United States National Library of Medicine – Toxnet. Hazardous Substances Data Bank. [2014-01-05]. Concentrations of (14)C-amphetamine declined less rapidly in the plasma of human subjects maintained on an alkaline diet (urinary pH > 7.5) than those on an acid diet (urinary pH < 6). Plasma half-lives of amphetamine ranged between 16-31 hr & 8-11 hr, respectively, & the excretion of (14)C in 24 hr urine was 45 & 70%.
^Enantiomer. IUPAC Goldbook. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. [2014-03-14]. doi:10.1351/goldbook.E02069. （原始內容存檔於2013-03-17）. One of a pair of molecular entities which are mirror images of each other and non-superposable.
^ 24.024.1Guidelines on the Use of International Nonproprietary Names (INNS) for Pharmaceutical Substances. World Health Organization. 1997 [2014-12-01]. In principle, INNs are selected only for the active part of the molecule which is usually the base, acid or alcohol. In some cases, however, the active molecules need to be expanded for various reasons, such as formulation purposes, bioavailability or absorption rate. In 1975 the experts designated for the selection of INN decided to adopt a new policy for naming such molecules. In future, names for different salts or esters of the same active substance should differ only with regard to the inactive moiety of the molecule. ... The latter are called modified INNs (INNMs).
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^ 27.027.127.2Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Berridge CW. The Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Psychostimulants Involve Direct Action in the Prefrontal Cortex. Biol. Psychiatry. June 2015, 77 (11): 940–950. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.09.013. PMID 25499957. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Findings from this research unambiguously demonstrate that the cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve the preferential elevation of catecholamines in the PFC and the subsequent activation of norepinephrine α2 and dopamine D1 receptors. ... This differential modulation of PFC-dependent processes across dose appears to be associated with the differential involvement of noradrenergic α2 versus α1 receptors. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers (improving PFC-dependent function). This information has potentially important clinical implications as well as relevance for public health policy regarding the widespread clinical use of psychostimulants and for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other conditions associated with PFC dysregulation. ... In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response inhibition, whereas maximal suppression of overt behavior and facilitation of attentional processes occurs at higher doses.引用錯誤：帶有name屬性「Unambiguous_PFC_D1_A2」的<ref>標籤用不同內容定義了多次
^ 28.028.1Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis. J. Cogn. Neurosci. January 2015: 1–21. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. PMID 25591060. Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. ... The results of this meta-analysis ... do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.引用錯誤：帶有name屬性「Cognitive_and_motivational_effects」的<ref>標籤用不同內容定義了多次
^ 29.029.129.229.329.429.529.629.729.829.9Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 318, 321. ISBN 9780071481274. Therapeutic (relatively low) doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those with ADHD. ... stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of arousal and, within the nucleus accumbens, improve the saliency of tasks. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks ... through indirect stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. ...
Beyond these general permissive effects, dopamine (acting via D1 receptors) and norepinephrine (acting at several receptors) can, at optimal levels, enhance working memory and aspects of attention.
^ 30.030.130.230.330.4Liddle DG, Connor DJ. Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS. Prim. Care. June 2013, 40 (2): 487–505. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.02.009. PMID 23668655. Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training ...
Physiologic and performance effects · Amphetamines increase dopamine/norepinephrine release and inhibit their reuptake, leading to central nervous system (CNS) stimulation · Amphetamines seem to enhance athletic performance in anaerobic conditions 39 40 · Improved reaction time · Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue · Increased acceleration · Increased alertness and attention to task
^ 35.035.135.235.3Shoptaw SJ, Kao U, Ling W. Shoptaw SJ, Ali R, 編. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. January 2009, (1): CD003026. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3. PMID 19160215. A minority of individuals who use amphetamines develop full-blown psychosis requiring care at emergency departments or psychiatric hospitals. In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation. More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not require high-intensity intervention ...
About 5–15% of the users who develop an amphetamine psychosis fail to recover completely (Hofmann 1983) ...
Findings from one trial indicate use of antipsychotic medications effectively resolves symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
^ 37.037.1Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 368. ISBN 9780071481274. Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic (Chapter 2), and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy (Chapter 12). Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction, especially when they are rapidly administered or when high-potency forms are given.
^ 38.038.1Kollins SH. A qualitative review of issues arising in the use of psycho-stimulant medications in patients with ADHD and co-morbid substance use disorders. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. May 2008, 24 (5): 1345–1357. doi:10.1185/030079908X280707. PMID 18384709. When oral formulations of psychostimulants are used at recommended doses and frequencies, they are unlikely to yield effects consistent with abuse potential in patients with ADHD.
^ 39.039.1Stolerman IP. Stolerman IP, 編. Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. Berlin, Germany; London, England: Springer. 2010: 78. ISBN 9783540686989.
^ 46.046.146.246.346.4Grandy DK, Miller GM, Li JX. "TAARgeting Addiction"-The Alamo Bears Witness to Another Revolution: An Overview of the Plenary Symposium of the 2015 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry Conference. Drug Alcohol Depend. February 2016, 159: 9–16. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.11.014. PMID 26644139. When considered together with the rapidly growing literature in the field a compelling case emerges in support of developing TAAR1-selective agonists as medications for preventing relapse to psychostimulant abuse.
^ 53.053.1Hart H, Radua J, Nakao T, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K. Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry. February 2013, 70 (2): 185–198. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.277. PMID 23247506.
^ 55.055.1Frodl T, Skokauskas N. Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects.. Acta psychiatrica Scand. February 2012, 125 (2): 114–126. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01786.x. PMID 22118249. Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood. Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure.
^ 56.056.156.256.3Millichap JG. Chapter 9: Medications for ADHD. (編) Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD 2nd. New York, USA: Springer. 2010: 121–123, 125–127. ISBN 9781441913968. Ongoing research has provided answers to many of the parents』 concerns, and has confirmed the effectiveness and safety of the long-term use of medication.
^ 59.059.159.259.359.4Huang YS, Tsai MH. Long-term outcomes with medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: current status of knowledge. CNS Drugs. July 2011, 25 (7): 539–554. doi:10.2165/11589380-000000000-00000. PMID 21699268. Recent studies have demonstrated that stimulants, along with the non-stimulants atomoxetine and extended-release guanfacine, are continuously effective for more than 2-year treatment periods with few and tolerable adverse effects. The effectiveness of long-term therapy includes not only the core symptoms of ADHD, but also improved quality of life and academic achievements. The most concerning short-term adverse effects of stimulants, such as elevated blood pressure and heart rate, waned in long-term follow-up studies. ... In the longest follow-up study (of more than 10 years), lifetime stimulant treatment for ADHD was effective and protective against the development of adverse psychiatric disorders.
^ 60.060.160.2Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 154–157. ISBN 9780071481274.
^Millichap JG. Chapter 9: Medications for ADHD. (編) Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD 2nd. New York, USA: Springer. 2010: 111–113. ISBN 9781441913968.
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^ 83.083.183.2Roelands B, de Koning J, Foster C, Hettinga F, Meeusen R. Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing. Sports Med. May 2013, 43 (5): 301–311. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0030-4. PMID 23456493. In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo. ... Dopaminergic drugs appear to override a safety switch and allow athletes to use a reserve capacity that is 『off-limits』 in a normal (placebo) situation.
^Parker KL, Lamichhane D, Caetano MS, Narayanan NS. Executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and timing deficits. Front. Integr. Neurosci. October 2013, 7: 75. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00075. PMC 3813949. PMID 24198770. Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling profoundly influence interval timing, leading to the hypothesis that dopamine influences internal pacemaker, or 「clock,」 activity. For instance, amphetamine, which increases concentrations of dopamine at the synaptic cleft advances the start of responding during interval timing, whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing;... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs timing, while amphetamine releases synaptic dopamine and speeds up timing.
^Roelands B, De Pauw K, Meeusen R. Neurophysiological effects of exercise in the heat. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. June 2015,. 25 Suppl 1: 65–78. doi:10.1111/sms.12350. PMID 25943657. This indicates that subjects did not feel they were producing more power and consequently more heat. The authors concluded that the 「safety switch」 or the mechanisms existing in the body to prevent harmful effects are overridden by the drug administration (Roelands et al., 2008b). Taken together, these data indicate strong ergogenic effects of an increased DA concentration in the brain, without any change in the perception of effort.
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^ 100.0100.1100.2100.3100.4Ruffle JK. Molecular neurobiology of addiction: what's all the (Δ)FosB about?. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse. November 2014, 40 (6): 428–437. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.933840. PMID 25083822. ΔFosB is an essential transcription factor implicated in the molecular and behavioral pathways of addiction following repeated drug exposure.
^ 103.0103.1103.2103.3103.4103.5103.6103.7103.8Olsen CM. Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions. Neuropharmacology. December 2011, 61 (7): 1109–1122. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010. PMC 3139704. PMID 21459101. Similar to environmental enrichment, studies have found that exercise reduces self-administration and relapse to drugs of abuse (Cosgrove et al., 2002; Zlebnik et al., 2010). There is also some evidence that these preclinical findings translate to human populations, as exercise reduces withdrawal symptoms and relapse in abstinent smokers (Daniel et al., 2006; Prochaska et al., 2008), and one drug recovery program has seen success in participants that train for and compete in a marathon as part of the program (Butler, 2005). ... In humans, the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a dopamine dysregulation syndrome in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs. This syndrome is characterized by a medication-induced increase in (or compulsive) engagement in non-drug rewards such as gambling, shopping, or sex (Evans et al., 2006; Aiken, 2007; Lader, 2008).
^ 104.0104.1104.2104.3Lynch WJ, Peterson AB, Sanchez V, Abel J, Smith MA. Exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction: a neurobiological and stage-dependent hypothesis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. September 2013, 37 (8): 1622–1644. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.011. PMC 3788047. PMID 23806439. These findings suggest that exercise may 「magnitude」-dependently prevent the development of an addicted phenotype possibly by blocking/reversing behavioral and neuroadaptive changes that develop during and following extended access to the drug. ... Exercise has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction that may reduce drug craving and risk of relapse. Although few clinical studies have investigated the efficacy of exercise for preventing relapse, the few studies that have been conducted generally report a reduction in drug craving and better treatment outcomes ... Taken together, these data suggest that the potential benefits of exercise during relapse, particularly for relapse to psychostimulants, may be mediated via chromatin remodeling and possibly lead to greater treatment outcomes.
^ 105.0105.1105.2Zhou Y, Zhao M, Zhou C, Li R. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies. Front. Neuroendocrinol. July 2015, 40: 24–41. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2015.07.001. PMID 26182835. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that exercise may serve as a substitute or competition for drug abuse by changing ΔFosB or cFos immunoreactivity in the reward system to protect against later or previous drug use. ... The postulate that exercise serves as an ideal intervention for drug addiction has been widely recognized and used in human and animal rehabilitation.
^ 107.0107.1Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 386. ISBN 9780071481274. Currently, cognitive–behavioral therapies are the most successful treatment available for preventing the relapse of psychostimulant use.
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^Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274.
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^ 112.0112.1112.2Renthal W, Nestler EJ. Chromatin regulation in drug addiction and depression. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. September 2009, 11 (3): 257–268. PMC 2834246. PMID 19877494. [Psychostimulants] increase cAMP levels in striatum, which activates protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phosphorylation of its targets. This includes the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), the phosphorylation of which induces its association with the histone acetyltransferase, CREB binding protein (CBP) to acetylate histones and facilitate gene activation. This is known to occur on many genes including fosB and c-fos in response to psychostimulant exposure. ΔFosB is also upregulated by chronic psychostimulant treatments, and is known to activate certain genes (eg, cdk5) and repress others (eg, c-fos) where it recruits HDAC1 as a corepressor. ... Chronic exposure to psychostimulants increases glutamatergic [signaling] from the prefrontal cortex to the NAc. Glutamatergic signaling elevates Ca2+ levels in NAc postsynaptic elements where it activates CaMK (calcium/calmodulin protein kinases) signaling, which, in addition to phosphorylating CREB, also phosphorylates HDAC5. Figure 2: Psychostimulant-induced signaling events
^Kanehisa Laboratories. Amphetamine – Homo sapiens (human). KEGG Pathway. 10 October 2014 [31 October 2014]. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), projection areas of mesocorticolimbic DA neurons and key components of the "brain reward circuit". Amphetamine achieves this elevation in extracellular levels of DA by promoting efflux from synaptic terminals. ... Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term adaptive changes in the brain.
^ 117.0117.1117.2Nestler EJ. Transcriptional mechanisms of drug addiction. Clin. Psychopharmacol. Neurosci. December 2012, 10 (3): 136–143. doi:10.9758/cpn.2012.10.3.136. PMC 3569166. PMID 23430970. The 35-37 kD ΔFosB isoforms accumulate with chronic drug exposure due to their extraordinarily long half-lives. ... As a result of its stability, the ΔFosB protein persists in neurons for at least several weeks after cessation of drug exposure. ... ΔFosB overexpression in nucleus accumbens induces NFκB ... In contrast, the ability of ΔFosB to repress the c-Fos gene occurs in concert with the recruitment of a histone deacetylase and presumably several other repressive proteins such as a repressive histone methyltransferase
^Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 4: Signal Transduction in the Brain. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 94. ISBN 9780071481274.
^Perez-Mana C, Castells X, Torrens M, Capella D, Farre M. Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. September 2013, 9: CD009695. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009695.pub2. PMID 23996457. To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for [addiction], and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. ... Results of this review do not support the use of psychostimulant medications at the tested doses as a replacement therapy
^ 135.0135.1Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 124–125. ISBN 9780071481274.
^ 136.0136.1136.2Carroll ME, Smethells JR. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments. Front. Psychiatry. February 2016, 6: 175. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00175. PMC 4745113. PMID 26903885. Physical Exercise
There is accelerating evidence that physical exercise is a useful treatment for preventing and reducing drug addiction ... In some individuals, exercise has its own rewarding effects, and a behavioral economic interaction may occur, such that physical and social rewards of exercise can substitute for the rewarding effects of drug abuse. ... The value of this form of treatment for drug addiction in laboratory animals and humans is that exercise, if it can substitute for the rewarding effects of drugs, could be self-maintained over an extended period of time. Work to date in [laboratory animals and humans] regarding exercise as a treatment for drug addiction supports this hypothesis. ... Animal and human research on physical exercise as a treatment for stimulant addiction indicates that this is one of the most promising treatments on the horizon.
^ 137.0137.1137.2137.3Shoptaw SJ, Kao U, Heinzerling K, Ling W. Shoptaw SJ, 編. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. April 2009, (2): CD003021. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003021.pub2. PMID 19370579. The prevalence of this withdrawal syndrome is extremely common (Cantwell 1998; Gossop 1982) with 87.6% of 647 individuals with amphetamine dependence reporting six or more signs of amphetamine withdrawal listed in the DSM when the drug is not available (Schuckit 1999) ... The severity of withdrawal symptoms is greater in amphetamine dependent individuals who are older and who have more extensive amphetamine use disorders (McGregor 2005). Withdrawal symptoms typically present within 24 hours of the last use of amphetamine, with a withdrawal syndrome involving two general phases that can last 3 weeks or more. The first phase of this syndrome is the initial "crash" that resolves within about a week (Gossop 1982;McGregor 2005) ...
^Amphetamine. Hazardous Substances Data Bank. United States National Library of Medicine – Toxicology Data Network. [2014-02-26]. Direct toxic damage to vessels seems unlikely because of the dilution that occurs before the drug reaches the cerebral circulation.
^Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 15: Reinforcement and addictive disorders. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 370. ISBN 9780071481274. Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons.
^Krause J. SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Rev. Neurother. April 2008, 8 (4): 611–625. doi:10.1586/14737220.127.116.111. PMID 18416663. Zinc binds at ... extracellular sites of the DAT , serving as a DAT inhibitor. In this context, controlled double-blind studies in children are of interest, which showed positive effects of zinc [supplementation] on symptoms of ADHD [105,106]. It should be stated that at this time [supplementation] with zinc is not integrated in any ADHD treatment algorithm.
^ 154.0154.1Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, Freissmuth M, Gether U, Sitte HH. The role of zinc ions in reverse transport mediated by monoamine transporters. J. Biol. Chem. June 2002, 277 (24): 21505–21513. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112265200. PMID 11940571. The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) contains an endogenous high affinity Zn2+ binding site with three coordinating residues on its extracellular face (His193, His375, and Glu396). ... Although Zn2+ inhibited uptake, Zn2+ facilitated [3H]MPP+ release induced by amphetamine, MPP+, or K+-induced depolarization specifically at hDAT but not at the human serotonin and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET).
^Scassellati C, Bonvicini C, Faraone SV, Gennarelli M. Biomarkers and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analyses. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. October 2012, 51 (10): 1003–1019.e20. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.015. PMID 23021477. With regard to zinc supplementation, a placebo controlled trial reported that doses up to 30 mg/day of zinc were safe for at least 8 weeks, but the clinical effect was equivocal except for the finding of a 37% reduction in amphetamine optimal dose with 30 mg per day of zinc.110
^ 159.0159.1159.2159.3159.4Underhill SM, Wheeler DS, Li M, Watts SD, Ingram SL, Amara SG. Amphetamine modulates excitatory neurotransmission through endocytosis of the glutamate transporter EAAT3 in dopamine neurons. Neuron. July 2014, 83 (2): 404–416. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.043. PMC 4159050. PMID 25033183. AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al., 2007) and modulation and trafficking of the DAT (Fog et al., 2006; Sakrikar et al., 2012). ... For example, AMPH increases extracellular glutamate in various brain regions including the striatum, VTA and NAc (Del Arco et al., 1999; Kim et al., 1981; Mora and Porras, 1993; Xue et al., 1996), but it has not been established whether this change can be explained by increased synaptic release or by reduced clearance of glutamate. ... DHK-sensitive, EAAT2 uptake was not altered by AMPH (Figure 1A). The remaining glutamate transport in these midbrain cultures is likely mediated by EAAT3 and this component was significantly decreased by AMPH
^Rytting E, Audus KL. Novel organic cation transporter 2-mediated carnitine uptake in placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. January 2005, 312 (1): 192–198. doi:10.1124/jpet.104.072363. PMID 15316089.
^Inazu M, Takeda H, Matsumiya T. [The role of glial monoamine transporters in the central nervous system]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. August 2003, 23 (4): 171–178. PMID 13677912（Japanese）.引文格式1維護：未識別語文類型 (link)
^ 165.0165.1165.2Vicentic A, Jones DC. The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug addiction. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. February 2007, 320 (2): 499–506. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.091512. PMID 16840648. The physiological importance of CART was further substantiated in numerous human studies demonstrating a role of CART in both feeding and psychostimulant addiction. ... Colocalization studies also support a role for CART in the actions of psychostimulants. ... CART and DA receptor transcripts colocalize (Beaudry et al., 2004). Second, dopaminergic nerve terminals in the NAc synapse on CART-containing neurons (Koylu et al., 1999), hence providing the proximity required for neurotransmitter signaling. These studies suggest that DA plays a role in regulating CART gene expression possibly via the activation of CREB.
^Zhang M, Han L, Xu Y. Roles of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the central nervous system. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. June 2012, 39 (6): 586–592. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2011.05642.x. PMID 22077697. Recently, it was demonstrated that CART, as a neurotrophic peptide, had a cerebroprotective against focal ischaemic stroke and inhibited the neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein, which focused attention on the role of CART in the central nervous system (CNS) and neurological diseases. ... The literature indicates that there are many factors, such as regulation of the immunological system and protection against energy failure, that may be involved in the cerebroprotection afforded by CART
^ 172.0172.1Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS. Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res. Monogr. March 1998, 178: 440–466. PMID 9686407.
^ 173.0173.1Finnema SJ, Scheinin M, Shahid M, Lehto J, Borroni E, Bang-Andersen B, Sallinen J, Wong E, Farde L, Halldin C, Grimwood S. Application of cross-species PET imaging to assess neurotransmitter release in brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). November 2015, 232 (21–22): 4129–4157. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-3938-6. PMC 4600473. PMID 25921033. More recently, Colasanti and colleagues reported that a pharmacologically induced elevation in endogenous opioid release reduced [11C]carfentanil binding in several regions of the human brain, including the basal ganglia, frontal cortex, and thalamus (Colasanti et al. 2012). Oral administration of d-amphetamine, 0.5 mg/kg, 3 h before [11C]carfentanil injection, reduced BPND values by 2–10 %. The results were confirmed in another group of subjects (Mick et al. 2014). However, Guterstam and colleagues observed no change in [11C]carfentanil binding when d-amphetamine, 0.3 mg/kg, was administered intravenously directly before injection of [11C]carfentanil (Guterstam et al. 2013). It has been hypothesized that this discrepancy may be related to delayed increases in extracellular opioid peptide concentrations following amphetamine-evoked monoamine release (Colasanti et al. 2012; Mick et al. 2014).
^ 177.0177.1177.2Oswald LM, Wong DF, McCaul M, Zhou Y, Kuwabara H, Choi L, Brasic J, Wand GS. Relationships among ventral striatal dopamine release, cortisol secretion, and subjective responses to amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. April 2005, 30 (4): 821–832. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300667. PMID 15702139. Findings from several prior investigations have shown that plasma levels of glucocorticoids and ACTH are increased by acute administration of AMPH in both rodents and humans
^mct. TAAR1. GenAtlas. University of Paris. 2012-01-28 [2014-05-29]. · tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA)
^ 184.0184.1184.2Sulzer D, Cragg SJ, Rice ME. Striatal dopamine neurotransmission: regulation of release and uptake. Basal Ganglia. August 2016, 6 (3): 123–148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in determining synaptic vesicle pH, the proton gradient across the vesicle membrane is of fundamental importance for its function. Exposure of isolated catecholamine vesicles to protonophores collapses the pH gradient and rapidly redistributes transmitter from inside to outside the vesicle. ... Amphetamine and its derivatives like methamphetamine are weak base compounds that are the only widely used class of drugs known to elicit transmitter release by a non-exocytic mechanism. As substrates for both DAT and VMAT, amphetamines can be taken up to the cytosol and then sequestered in vesicles, where they act to collapse the vesicular pH gradient.
^Richard RA. Route of Administration. Chapter 5—Medical Aspects of Stimulant Use Disorders. National Center for Biotechnology Information Bookshelf. Treatment Improvement Protocol 33. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1999.