^對映異構體指的是 are molecules that are mirror images of one another; they are structurally identical, but of the opposite orientation.Levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine are also known as L-amph or levamfetamine (INN) and D-amph or dexamfetamine (INN) respectively.
^"Adderall" is a 品牌名稱 as opposed to a nonproprietary name; because the latter ("dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine aspartate" ) is excessively long, this article exclusively refers to this amphetamine mixture by the brand name.
^The term "amphetamines" also refers to a chemical class, but, unlike the class of substituted amphetamines, the "amphetamines" class does not have a standardized definition in academic literature. One of the more restrictive definitions of this class includes only the racemate and enantiomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most general definition of the class encompasses a broad range of pharmacologically and structurally related compounds.
Due to confusion that may arise from use of the plural form, this article will only use the terms "amphetamine" and "amphetamines" to refer to racemic amphetamine, levoamphetamine, and dextroamphetamine and reserve the term "substituted amphetamines" for its structural class.
^The ADHD-related outcome domains with the greatest proportion of significantly improved outcomes from long-term continuous stimulant therapy include academics (~55% of academic outcomes improved), driving (100% of driving outcomes improved), non-medical drug use (47% of addiction-related outcomes improved), obesity (~65% of obesity-related outcomes improved), self esteem (50% of self-esteem outcomes improved), and social function (67% of social function outcomes improved).
The largest effect sizes for outcome improvements from long-term stimulant therapy occur in the domains involving academics (e.g., grade point average, achievement test scores, length of education, and education level), self-esteem (e.g., self-esteem questionnaire assessments, number of suicide attempts, and suicide rates), and social function (e.g., peer nomination scores, social skills, and quality of peer, family, and romantic relationships).
Long-term combination therapy for ADHD (i.e., treatment with both a stimulant and behavioral therapy) produces even larger effect sizes for outcome improvements and improves a larger proportion of outcomes across each domain compared to long-term stimulant therapy alone.
^ 5.05.15.25.3Glennon RA. Phenylisopropylamine stimulants: amphetamine-related agents. (編) Lemke TL, Williams DA, Roche VF, Zito W. Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry 7th. Philadelphia, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2013: 646–648 [11 September 2015]. ISBN 9781609133450. The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... Amphetamine can also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to p-hydroxyamphetamine. ... Subsequent oxidation at the benzylic position by DA β-hydroxylase affords p-hydroxynorephedrine. Alternatively, direct oxidation of amphetamine by DA β-hydroxylase can afford norephedrine.
^ 7.07.1Horwitz D, Alexander RW, Lovenberg W, Keiser HR. Human serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase. Relationship to hypertension and sympathetic activity. Circ. Res. May 1973, 32 (5): 594–599. doi:10.1161/01.RES.32.5.594. PMID 4713201. Subjects with exceptionally low levels of serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity showed normal cardiovascular function and normal β-hydroxylation of an administered synthetic substrate, hydroxyamphetamine.
^ 9.09.1Cashman JR, Xiong YN, Xu L, Janowsky A. N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. March 1999, 288 (3): 1251–1260. PMID 10027866.
^ 16.016.1Biological Half-Life. AMPHETAMINE. United States National Library of Medicine – Toxnet. Hazardous Substances Data Bank. [5 January 2014]. Concentrations of (14)C-amphetamine declined less rapidly in the plasma of human subjects maintained on an alkaline diet (urinary pH > 7.5) than those on an acid diet (urinary pH < 6). Plasma half-lives of amphetamine ranged between 16-31 hr & 8-11 hr, respectively, & the excretion of (14)C in 24 hr urine was 45 & 70%.
^Enantiomer. IUPAC Goldbook. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. [14 March 2014]. doi:10.1351/goldbook.E02069. （原始內容存檔於17 March 2013）. One of a pair of molecular entities which are mirror images of each other and non-superposable.
^ 24.024.1Guidelines on the Use of International Nonproprietary Names (INNS) for Pharmaceutical Substances. World Health Organization. 1997 [1 December 2014]. In principle, INNs are selected only for the active part of the molecule which is usually the base, acid or alcohol. In some cases, however, the active molecules need to be expanded for various reasons, such as formulation purposes, bioavailability or absorption rate. In 1975 the experts designated for the selection of INN decided to adopt a new policy for naming such molecules. In future, names for different salts or esters of the same active substance should differ only with regard to the inactive moiety of the molecule. ... The latter are called modified INNs (INNMs).
^ 25.025.125.225.325.425.5Yoshida T. Chapter 1: Use and Misuse of Amphetamines: An International Overview. (編) Klee H. Amphetamine Misuse: International Perspectives on Current Trends. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers. 1997: 2 [1 December 2014]. ISBN 9789057020810. Amphetamine, in the singular form, properly applies to the racemate of 2-amino-1-phenylpropane. ... In its broadest context, however, the term [amphetamines] can even embrace a large number of structurally and pharmacologically related substances.
^ 26.026.1Amphetamine. Medical Subject Headings. United States National Library of Medicine. [16 December 2013].
^ 27.027.127.2Spencer RC, Devilbiss DM, Berridge CW. The Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Psychostimulants Involve Direct Action in the Prefrontal Cortex. Biol. Psychiatry. June 2015, 77 (11): 940–950. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.09.013. PMID 25499957. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Findings from this research unambiguously demonstrate that the cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve the preferential elevation of catecholamines in the PFC and the subsequent activation of norepinephrine α2 and dopamine D1 receptors. ... This differential modulation of PFC-dependent processes across dose appears to be associated with the differential involvement of noradrenergic α2 versus α1 receptors. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers (improving PFC-dependent function). This information has potentially important clinical implications as well as relevance for public health policy regarding the widespread clinical use of psychostimulants and for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other conditions associated with PFC dysregulation. ... In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response inhibition, whereas maximal suppression of overt behavior and facilitation of attentional processes occurs at higher doses.引用錯誤：帶有name屬性「Unambiguous_PFC_D1_A2」的<ref>標籤用不同內容定義了多次
^ 28.028.1Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis. J. Cogn. Neurosci. January 2015: 1–21. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. PMID 25591060. Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. ... The results of this meta-analysis ... do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.引用錯誤：帶有name屬性「Cognitive_and_motivational_effects」的<ref>標籤用不同內容定義了多次
^ 30.030.130.230.330.430.530.630.730.8Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 318, 321. ISBN 9780071481274. Therapeutic (relatively low) doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those with ADHD. ... stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of arousal and, within the nucleus accumbens, improve the saliency of tasks. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks ... through indirect stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors. ...
Beyond these general permissive effects, dopamine (acting via D1 receptors) and norepinephrine (acting at several receptors) can, at optimal levels, enhance working memory and aspects of attention.
^ 31.031.131.231.331.4Liddle DG, Connor DJ. Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS. Prim. Care. June 2013, 40 (2): 487–505. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.02.009. PMID 23668655. Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training ...
Physiologic and performance effects · Amphetamines increase dopamine/norepinephrine release and inhibit their reuptake, leading to central nervous system (CNS) stimulation · Amphetamines seem to enhance athletic performance in anaerobic conditions 39 40 · Improved reaction time · Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue · Increased acceleration · Increased alertness and attention to task
^ 54.054.1Hart H, Radua J, Nakao T, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K. Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry. February 2013, 70 (2): 185–198. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.277. PMID 23247506.
^ 56.056.1Frodl T, Skokauskas N. Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects.. Acta psychiatrica Scand. February 2012, 125 (2): 114–126. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01786.x. PMID 22118249. Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood. Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure.
^ 57.057.157.257.3Millichap JG. Chapter 9: Medications for ADHD. (編) Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD 2nd. New York, USA: Springer. 2010: 121–123, 125–127. ISBN 9781441913968. Ongoing research has provided answers to many of the parents』 concerns, and has confirmed the effectiveness and safety of the long-term use of medication.
^ 59.059.159.259.359.4Huang YS, Tsai MH. Long-term outcomes with medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: current status of knowledge. CNS Drugs. July 2011, 25 (7): 539–554. doi:10.2165/11589380-000000000-00000. PMID 21699268. Recent studies have demonstrated that stimulants, along with the non-stimulants atomoxetine and extended-release guanfacine, are continuously effective for more than 2-year treatment periods with few and tolerable adverse effects. The effectiveness of long-term therapy includes not only the core symptoms of ADHD, but also improved quality of life and academic achievements. The most concerning short-term adverse effects of stimulants, such as elevated blood pressure and heart rate, waned in long-term follow-up studies. ... In the longest follow-up study (of more than 10 years), lifetime stimulant treatment for ADHD was effective and protective against the development of adverse psychiatric disorders.
^ 60.060.160.2Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 154–157. ISBN 9780071481274.
^Millichap JG. Chapter 9: Medications for ADHD. (編) Millichap JG. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician's Guide to ADHD 2nd. New York, USA: Springer. 2010: 111–113. ISBN 9781441913968.
^Methylphenidate. Home of MedlinePlus → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Methylphenidate Methylphenidate pronounced as (meth il fen' i date). 2016-02-15 [February twenty seventh, 2017].請檢查|access-date=中的日期值 (幫助)
^Combining medications could offer better results for ADHD patients. Science News. Elsevier. 2016-08-01 [January 2017]. （原始內容存檔於August 2016）. "Three studies to be published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) report that combining two standard medications could lead to greater clinical improvements for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than either ADHD therapy alone.", August, 2016
^Adults with ADHD. MedlinePlus the Magazine 9. 8600 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, MD 20894, United States of America: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Spring 2014: 19. ISSN 1937-4712（American English）.
^Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE at the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2016-05-25 [February twenty seventh, 2017.].請檢查|access-date=中的日期值 (幫助)
^All Disorders. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. [February twenty seventh, 2017].請檢查|access-date=中的日期值 (幫助)
^Kessler S. Drug therapy in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. South. Med. J. January 1996, 89 (1): 33–38. doi:10.1097/00007611-199601000-00005. PMID 8545689. statements on package inserts are not intended to limit medical practice. Rather they are intended to limit claims by pharmaceutical companies. ... the FDA asserts explicitly, and the courts have upheld that clinical decisions are to be made by physicians and patients in individual situations.
^Feinberg SS. Combining stimulants with monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a review of uses and one possible additional indication. J. Clin. Psychiatry. November 2004, 65 (11): 1520–1524. doi:10.4088/jcp.v65n1113. \ PMID 15554766 \請檢查|pmid=值 (幫助).
^Devous MD, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ. Regional cerebral blood flow response to oral amphetamine challenge in healthy volunteers. J. Nucl. Med. April 2001, 42 (4): 535–542. PMID 11337538.
^Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Chapter 10: Neural and Neuroendocrine Control of the Internal Milieu. (編) Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 266. ISBN 9780071481274. Dopamine acts in the nucleus accumbens to attach motivational significance to stimuli associated with reward.
^ 89.089.189.289.3Parr JW. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the athlete: new advances and understanding. Clin. Sports Med. July 2011, 30 (3): 591–610. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2011.03.007. PMID 21658550. In 1980, Chandler and Blair47 showed significant increases in knee extension strength, acceleration, anaerobic capacity, time to exhaustion during exercise, pre-exercise and maximum heart rates, and time to exhaustion during maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) testing after administration of 15 mg of dextroamphetamine versus placebo. Most of the information to answer this question has been obtained in the past decade through studies of fatigue rather than an attempt to systematically investigate the effect of ADHD drugs on exercise.
^ 90.090.190.2Roelands B, de Koning J, Foster C, Hettinga F, Meeusen R. Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing. Sports Med. May 2013, 43 (5): 301–311. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0030-4. PMID 23456493. In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo. ... Dopaminergic drugs appear to override a safety switch and allow athletes to use a reserve capacity that is 『off-limits』 in a normal (placebo) situation.
^Parker KL, Lamichhane D, Caetano MS, Narayanan NS. Executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and timing deficits. Front. Integr. Neurosci. October 2013, 7: 75. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00075. PMC 3813949. PMID 24198770. Manipulations of dopaminergic signaling profoundly influence interval timing, leading to the hypothesis that dopamine influences internal pacemaker, or 「clock,」 activity. For instance, amphetamine, which increases concentrations of dopamine at the synaptic cleft advances the start of responding during interval timing, whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing;... Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs timing, while amphetamine releases synaptic dopamine and speeds up timing.
^Roelands B, De Pauw K, Meeusen R. Neurophysiological effects of exercise in the heat. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. June 2015,. 25 Suppl 1: 65–78. doi:10.1111/sms.12350. PMID 25943657. This indicates that subjects did not feel they were producing more power and consequently more heat. The authors concluded that the 「safety switch」 or the mechanisms existing in the body to prevent harmful effects are overridden by the drug administration (Roelands et al., 2008b). Taken together, these data indicate strong ergogenic effects of an increased DA concentration in the brain, without any change in the perception of effort.
^Richard RA. Route of Administration. Chapter 5—Medical Aspects of Stimulant Use Disorders. National Center for Biotechnology Information Bookshelf. Treatment Improvement Protocol 33. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1999.