象雄语

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象雄语
区域 西藏西部、中亚
年代 7世纪–10世纪[1]
語系
語言代碼
ISO 639-3 xzh
语言学家列表 xzh
Glottolog zhan1239[2]

象雄语藏文ཞང་ཞུང威利zhang zhung)是吐蕃青藏高原崛起前象雄所用语言,使用者在今天西藏西部,现已灭绝。经证实出现在被称为《洞窟中的宝藏》(mDzod phug)的多语种文献及其他短文当中。

一小部分包含未被破译的语言的敦煌文献中的内容被称为古象雄语,但其性质尚存争议。

洞窟中的宝藏(mDzod phug)[编辑]

《洞窟中的宝藏》(藏文མཛོད་ཕུག威利mdzod phug)是指由Shenchen Luga(藏文གཤེན་ཆེན་ཀླུ་དགའ威利gshen chen klu dga')于12世纪公开的一部伏藏[3]Martin(n.d.: p. 21)认定其对于研究象雄语有重要意义:

For students of Tibetan culture in general, the mDzod phug is one of the most intriguing of all Bön scriptures, since it is the only lengthy bilingual work in Zhang-zhung and Tibetan (some of the shorter but still significant sources for Zhang-zhung are signalled in Orofino 1990)."[4]

通常对于西藏文化的学者来说,mDzod phug是所有笨教典籍中最神秘的一部,以其是唯一长篇的象雄语和藏语双语作品(一些更短但仍然意义重大象雄文献于1990年在奥罗菲诺被报告)

外部关系[编辑]

Bradley(2002)称象雄语“现已认定”曾经是卡瑙里语或者西喜马拉雅语言。向柏霖英语Guillaume Jacques(2009)驳斥早期假说时通过该语言被认定为非羌语支语言称象雄语可能源于西藏东部而非西部。[5]

文字[编辑]

Marchen
类型 元音附标文字
语言 象雄语
ISO 15924 Marc、332
书写方向 从左到右
Unicode范围 U+11C70–U+11CBF
注意:本页可能包含Unicode国际音标

有多种文字被认为用来书写象雄语:[6]

  • Marchen或大Mar文字(藏文སྨར་ཆེན威利smar chen[7]
  • Marchung或小Mar文字(藏文སྨར་ཆུང威利smar chung
  • Pungchen或大Pung文字(藏文སྤུངས་ཆེན威利spungs chen
  • Pungchung或小Pung文字(藏文སྤུངས་ཆུང威利spungs chung
  • Drusha文字(藏文བྲུ་ཤ威利bru sha

然而这些文字在很少出现在书写方式之外。其中一个现存的的文献是原在祖卜寺的图章,使用Marchen文字。[8]

Unicode[编辑]

Marchen于2016年6月被Unicode 9.0 标准收录。

Marchen[1][2]
Unicode Consortium官方代码表(PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+11C7x 𑱰 𑱱 𑱲 𑱳 𑱴 𑱵 𑱶 𑱷 𑱸 𑱹 𑱺 𑱻 𑱼 𑱽 𑱾 𑱿
U+11C8x 𑲀 𑲁 𑲂 𑲃 𑲄 𑲅 𑲆 𑲇 𑲈 𑲉 𑲊 𑲋 𑲌 𑲍 𑲎 𑲏
U+11C9x 𑲒 𑲓 𑲔 𑲕 𑲖 𑲗 𑲘 𑲙 𑲚 𑲛 𑲜 𑲝 𑲞 𑲟
U+11CAx 𑲠 𑲡 𑲢 𑲣 𑲤 𑲥 𑲦 𑲧 𑲩 𑲪 𑲫 𑲬 𑲭 𑲮 𑲯
U+11CBx 𑲰 𑲱 𑲲 𑲳 𑲴 𑲵 𑲶
注释
1.^ 依据Unicode 9.0
2.^ 灰色区域指示未被分配的码点

古象雄语[编辑]

F. W. Thomas提出三份用藏文书写的未被破解的敦煌文献是以象雄语早期的形式书写的。这一鉴定得到了武内紹人的认同,他称其为“古象雄语”,并且补充了两份文献。[9]然而Dan Martin对于鉴定这些文本的语言为象雄语的变种的学说提出了疑问。

这些文献的其中两份收于不列颠图书馆斯坦因藏书书目中,另外三份收于法国国家图书馆贝希和藏书书目中。在不同情况下,写在与卷轴相反一侧的有价值的文本都包含了早期汉传佛教的文献。[9]用藏文书写的文献可追溯到8世纪末或9世纪初。武内和Nishida声称文献已部分破译,他们相信破译的部分是医学内容。[10]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 象雄语 at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Zhangzhung. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  3. ^ Berzin, Alexander (2005). The Four Immeasurable Attitudes in Hinayana, Mahayana, and Bön. Study Buddhism. Source: [1] (accessed: June 6, 2016)
  4. ^ Martin, Dan (n.d.). "Comparing Treasuries: Mental states and other mdzod phug lists and passages with parallels in Abhidharma works of Vasubandhu and Asanga, or in Prajnaparamita Sutras: A progress report." 耶路撒冷大学. 来源:[2] (accessed: Monday March 1, 2010)
  5. ^ Jacques, Guillaume. Zhangzhung and Qiangic Languages. (编) Yasuhiko Nagano. Issues in Tibeto-Burman Historical Linguistics (PDF). Senri Ethnological Studies 75. 2009: 121–130. 
  6. ^ West, Andrew. N4032: Proposal to encode the Marchen script in the SMP of the UCS (PDF). 30 April 2011. 
  7. ^ West, Andrew. N4491: Final proposal to encode the Marchen script in the SMP of the UCS (PDF). 2013-10-22. 
  8. ^ West, Andrew. Zhang Zhung Royal Seal. 1 January 2008. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Tsuguhito Takeuchi. The Old Zhangzhung Manuscript Stein Or 8212/188. (编) Christopher Beckwith. Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages. Leiden: Brill. 2002: 1–11. ISBN 978-90-04-12424-0. 
  10. ^ Takeuchi, Tsuguhito; Nishida, Ai. The Present Stage of Deciphering Old Zhangzhung. (编) Nagano, Yasuhiko. Issues in Tibeto-Burman Historical Linguistics (PDF). Senri Ethnological Studies 75. 2009: 151–165. 

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Martin, Dan (n.d.). "Comparing Treasuries: Mental states and other mdzod phug lists and passages with parallels in Abhidharma works of Vasubandhu and Asanga, or in Prajnaparamita Sutras: A progress report." University of Jerusalem.
  • David Bradley (2002) "The Subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman", in Chris Beckwith, Henk Blezer, eds., Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages. Brill.
  • Martin, Dan. Zhang-zhung Dictionary. 2004. 
  • Haarh, Erik. The Zhang-zhung Language: A Grammar and Dictionary of the Unexplored Language of the Tibetan Bönpos. Universitetsforlaget i Aarhus og Munksgaard, 1968.
  • Hummel, Seigbert and Guido Vogliotti, ed. and trans. On Zhang-zhung. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 2000.
  • Namgyal Nyima Dagkar. “Concise Analysis of Zhang Zhung Terms in the Documents of Dunhuang.” In Tibet, Past and Present: Tibetan Studies I, edited by Henk Blezer, Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000, vol. 1, pp. 429–439. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
  • Namgyal Nyima (Rnam rgyal nyi ma). Zhang-zhung – Tibetan – English Contextual Dictionary. Berlin, 2003. Description: This new dictionary of Zhangzhung terminology from the Bön tradition of Tibetan religion includes 3875 entries drawn from 468 sources. These entries include Tibetan and English definitions as well as the citation of passages in which they occur with full bibliographical information for these passages.

参见[编辑]