中觀應成派

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中觀應成派梵語Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka),又稱隨應破派必過性空派大乘佛教中觀學派之下的支派之一,由佛護月稱建立。這個派別的學說未傳入漢傳佛教,但在藏傳佛教傳承下來。後世的格魯派主要採取他們的見解,並將此認定為中觀派的主流。[1]

名稱[编辑]

此派得名於他們使用的辯論技巧。他們採用隨應破(prasaṅga)的方式來闡述空性。清辯採用自立量來作為辯論技巧,與他們形成對立,被稱為中觀自續派(svātantrika)。

隨應破,又譯為墮過,最早起源於龍樹中論》。本意為「墮於過失」,這種辯論技巧認為對方的主張中必有過失,尋找出其過失,就可破斥其主張。當對方最後所有的立量都失敗之後,就可以確認一切法都沒有實體,亦即是空性的。

月稱解釋這種方法,為自無宗故。宗(pratijñā)是因明學術語,指主張命題;自無宗,也就是自身不需要先提出自己的意見與見解。這派的見解,同於嘉祥吉藏所說「破邪即是顯正」的見解。

歷史[编辑]

隨應破派的名稱,最早起於佛護、月稱。佛護為《中論》作註,提出隨應破方法,被清辯認為此法不合理,主張應採自立量。其徒月稱反駁清辯的見解,之後形成一個宗派,在那爛陀寺中傳承。

月稱的見解,之後為寂天繼承。經阿底峽傳入西藏,在噶當派中傳承。經宗喀巴,成為格魯派的中心宗義。

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Padmakara Translation Group 2005,第386, note 12頁.

參考文獻[编辑]

主要參考資料
次要參考資料
  • Brunhölzl, Karl, Center of the Sunlit Sky: Madhyamaka in the Kagyu Tradition, Snow Lion Publications, 2004 
  • Garfield, Jay L.; Thakchöe, Sonam, Identifying the Object of Negation and the Status of Conventional Truth: Why the dGag Bya Matters So Much to Tibetan Mādhyamikas, Cowherds (编), Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2011 
  • Cheng, Hsueh-Li, The Roots of Zen Buddhism, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 1981, 8: 451–478, doi:10.1111/j.1540-6253.1981.tb00267.x 
  • Dreyfus, Georges B.J.; McClintock, L. Sara, Introduction, Dreyfus, Georges B.J.; McClintock, L. Sara (编), Svatantrika-Prasangika Distinction: What Difference Does a Difference Make?, Simon and Schuster, 2015 
  • Hopkins, Jeffrey, A Tibetan Perspective on the Nature of Spiritual Experience, Buswell, Jr., Robert E.; Gimello, Robert M. (编), Paths to Liberation. The Marga and its Transformations in Buddhist Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, 1994 
  • Hopkins, Jeffrey, Emptiness Yoga, Kalachakra Tantra. Rite of Initiation, Wisom Publications, 1999 
  • Jinpa, Thupten, Negation, identyfying its object, Leaman, Oliver (编), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Routledge, 2006 
  • Newland, Guy, Schijn en werkelijkheid. De twee waarheden in de vier boeddhistische leerstelsels, KunchabPublicaties, 1999 
  • Padmakara Translation Group, Translator's Introduction, The Adornment of the Middle Way. Shantarakshita’s Madhyamakalankara with commentary by Jamgön Mipham, Shambhala, 2005 
  • Padmakara Translation Group, Translator's Introduction, Introduction to the Middle Way. Candrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara; with commentary by Ju Mipham, Shambhala, 2012 
  • Rizzi, Cesare, Candrakīrti, Motilal Banarsidass, 1988 
Web-sources

延伸閲讀[编辑]

導論
  • Lopez, Introduction; Chapter 2: Svatantrika and Prasangika, A Study of Svatantrika, Snow Lion Publications, 1987 
  • Padmakara Translation Group, Translator's Introduction, The Adornment of the Middle Way. Shantarakshita’s Madhyamakalankara with commentary by Jamgön Mipham, Shambhala, 2005 
  • Padmakara Translation Group, Translator's Introduction, Introduction to the Middle Way. Candrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara; with commentary by Ju Mipham, Shambhala, 2012 
印度中觀
  • della Santina, Peter. Madhyamaka Schools in India. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi. (1986)
西藏中觀(主要/次要 參考資料)
  • Candrakirti; Ju Mipham, Introduction to the Middle Way. Candrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara; with commentary by Ju Mipham, Shambhala, 2012  (Candrakirti/Nyingma)
  • Shantarakshita; Ju Mipham, The Adornment of the Middle Way, Shambhala, 2005, ISBN 1-59030-241-9  (Shantarakshita/Nyingma)
  • Tsong Khapa, The great treatise on the stages of the path to enlightenment: Volume 3, Snow Lion Publications, 2002, ISBN 1-55939-166-9  (Gelugpa)
  • Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, 1st Panchen Lama; 14th Dalai Lama; Berzin, Alexander, Session 10, The Gelug/Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra (PDF), Shambhala, 1997  (Gelugpa)
  • Jang-Gya; Lopez, Donald, A Study of Svatantrika, Snow Lion Publications, 1987  (Gelugpa)
  • Brunhölzl, Karl, Center of the Sunlit Sky: Madhyamaka in the Kagyu Tradition, Snow Lion Publications, 2004  (Kagyu)
  • Cabezon, J. I.; Lobsang Dargyay, Freedom from Extremes. Gorampa's "Distinguishing the View" and the Polemics of Emptiness, Wisdom, 2007  (Sakya)
西藏中觀(次要參考資料)
  • Dreyfus, Georges B.J.; McClintock, L. Sara (编), Svatantrika-Prasangika Distinction: What Difference Does a Difference Make?, Wisdom Publications, 2003 
  • Vose, Kevin Alan, The Birth of Prāsaṅgika: A Buddhist Movement in India and Tibet, University of Virginia, 2005 
  • Jay L. Garfield (2011), Identifying the Object of Negation and the Status of Conventional Truth: Why the dGag Bya Matters So Much to Tibetan Mādhyamikas页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). In: Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), Oxford University Press ( focuses on the debate between Tsongkhapa and Gorampa)
  • Phuntsho, Karma. Mipham's Dialectics and Debates on Emptiness: To Be, Not to Be or Neither. London: RoutledgeCurzon (2005) ISBN 0-415-35252-5
  • Cornu, Philippe, Nawoord, Schijn en werkelijkheid. De twee waarheden in de vier boeddhistische leerstelsels, KunchabPublicaties, 2001 

參見[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]