约翰一世 (君士坦丁堡牧首)

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聖金口若望
Saint John Chrysostom

東方:偉大的教父、普世聖師
西方: 主教教會聖師
出生 約347年[1]
安提阿
逝世 407年9月14日 [2]
本都科马纳·潘提卡英语Comana Pontica[3]
敬奉 正教會
東方正統教會
羅馬公教
東儀公教會
聖公會
信義會
列聖 五世紀中葉之前已被視為聖人
慶節 東方基督教
11月13日(君士坦丁堡教區)
1月27日(歸還聖髑)
1月30日(三聖教父節英语Three Holy Hierarchs)
西方基督教
9月13日(羅馬天主教聖人歷)
聖人象徵英语Saint symbolism 穿著主教的袍子, 握著四福音書卷軸, 舉右手作祝福狀;因齋戒而顯得憔悴的老人;蜂巢;白色的鴿子平底锅[4] 聖經上的聖爵英语chalice (cup)與墨水瓶
主保 君士坦丁堡, 教育, 癫痫, 講師英语lecturer, 演講者英语orator, 傳教者英语preacher [4]

聖金口若望希腊语Ιωάννης Χρυσόστομος英语发音:/ˈkrɪsəstəm, krɪˈsɒstəm/,347年-407年,或译约翰一世[5]),君士坦丁堡牧首,重要的基督教早期教父。若望一世以其出色的演讲雄辩能力,對當政者與教會內部濫用職權英语Abuse_of_authority的譴責、與嚴格的苦行而聞名於世。後世人稱其为“金口”(希腊语χρυσόστομος,中文音譯為「屈梭多模」,意為「金口」),以讚譽其口才。[2][6]

聖金口若望是重要的希腊教父,被许多教会封为圣人東方正教會東儀天主教會中,他與聖額我略·納齊安該撒利亞的聖巴西略一同被尊為三聖教父英语Three Holy Hierarchs。東方正教會與羅馬天主教都將其列為教會聖師之一。

聖金口若望的聖髑曾于1204年被十字军君士坦丁堡掠至罗马教宗聖若望·保禄二世于2004年归还了这批圣物。

生平[编辑]

「金口」若望約於350年生於安提阿,由他虔誠的母親阿修莎(Anthusa)撫養長大。他在十八歲那一年受洗,並且做了教會的講道員英语Reader (liturgy)。他獨自在山洞裡過苦修的生活兩年,損害了自己的健康。他在安提阿作長老,後來在君士坦丁堡作主教長, [7]而且他也很熱心的推動了哥特人的規劃,不管是屬外教人或是屬亞流派的哥特人。

398年他被選為君士坦丁堡主教,目標是改善宮廷和社會腐敗的情況,然後改革社會。但是也因他誠懇的態度、苦修主義和沉實的性格召來了很多敵人。[8] 聖職人員嫌屈梭多模太嚴,亚历山大牧首提阿非魯斯英语Pope_Theophilus_of_Alexandria忌妒他在安提阿任職。於403年召開橡樹莊會議英语Synod of the Oak,要把他免職,後來皇帝批准了,把他放逐

「金口」若望非常的勇敢,但是他卻缺乏機靈的講道又得罪了皇后,[9] 之後又被放逐到安提阿,然後遷至本都,最後因為被人的刻意安排之下,強迫他在惡劣的天氣之下徒步遠行,因而於407年去世了。

著作[编辑]

他的著作《論祭司》(On the Priesthood)描繪了牧者應盡的責任[10]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ The date of John's birth is disputed. For a discussion see Robert Carter, "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life", in Traditio 18:357–64 (1962); Jean Dumortier, "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome", in Mélanges de science religieuse, 8:51–56 (1951). Carter dates his birth to the year 349. See also Robert Louis Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century, (Berkeley: University of California Press:1983), p.5.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 "St John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, available online. Retrieved March 20, 2007.
  3. ^ Newadvent.org
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Catholic-forum.com
  5. ^ The exact date of John's birth is in question, and dates between 344 and 349 are often given, and limits set at 340 and 350 (Kelly 296). In the most recent general biography of Chrysostom, eminent patristics scholar JND Kelly, after a review of the evidence and literature, favours 349 as the date that best fits all available evidence, in agreement with Robert Carter. See Kelly, Golden Mouth: The Story of John Chrysostom: Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop, (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1998: originally published Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995) p. 4 fn. 12; esp. 296–298 passim. For a concurring analysis which is followed in most recent reconstructions of the early life of Chrysostomos, see Robert Carter, "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life", in Traditio 18:357–64 (1962). For a discussion of alternatives, often in older literature, see especially G. Ettlinger, Traditio 16 (1960) 373–80, Jean Dumortier, "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome", in Mélanges de science religieuse, 8:51–56 (1951).
  6. ^ Pope Vigilius, Constitution of Pope Vigilius, 553
  7. ^ 古勒本,《教會歷史》,李少蘭譯(香港:道聲出版社,2000),163。
  8. ^ 比爾‧奧斯丁,《基督教發展史》,馬傑偉、許建人譯(香港:種籽出版社,2002),107。
  9. ^ 陶理,《基督教兩千年史》,李伯明、林牧野合譯, (香港:海天書樓,2001,199。
  10. ^ 比爾‧奧斯丁,《基督教發展史》,107。

擴展閱讀[编辑]

  • Allen, Pauline and Mayer, Wendy (2000). John Chrysostom. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18252-2
  • Attwater, Donald (1960). St. John Chrysostom: Pastor and Preacher. London: Catholic Book Club.
  • Blamires, Harry (1996). The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Ulysses. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-15-3858-.
  • Brändle, R., V. Jegher-Bucher, and Johannes Chrysostomus (1995). Acht Reden gegen Juden (Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur 41), Stuttgart: Hiersemann.
  • Brustein, William I. (2003). Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77308-3
  • Carter, Robert (1962). "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life." Traditio 18:357–64.
  • Chrysostom, John (1979). Discourses Against Judaizing Christians, trans. Paul W. Harkins. The Fathers of the Church; v. 68. Washington: Catholic University of America Press.
  • Dumortier, Jean (1951). "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome." Mélanges de science religieuse, 8, 51–56.
  • Hartney, Aideen (2004). John Chrysostom and the Transformation of the City. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-520-04757-5.
  • Joyce, James (1961). Ulysses. New York: The Modern Library.
  • Kelly, John Norman Davidson (1995). Golden Mouth: The Story of John Chrysostom-Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop. Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3189-1.
  • Walter Laqueur (2006). The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530429-2.
  • Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G. (1990) Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church and State in the Age of Arcadius and Chrysostom. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-814886-0.
  • Lewy, Yohanan [Hans] (1997). "John Chrysostom". 《猶太百科全書》 (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  • Meeks, Wayne A., and Robert L. Wilken (1978). Jews and Christians in Antioch in the First Four Centuries of the Common Era (The Society of Biblical Literature, Number 13). Missoula: Scholars Press. ISBN 0-89130-229-8.
  • Palladius, Bishop of Aspuna. Palladius on the Life And Times of St. John Chrysostom, transl. and edited by Robert T. Meyer. New York: Newman Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8091-0358-3.
  • Parks, James (1969). Prelude to Dialogue. London.
  • Pradels, W. (2002). "Lesbos Cod. Gr. 27 : The Tale of a Discovery", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, pp. 81–89.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2001). "Das bisher vermisste Textstück in Johannes Chrysostomus, Adversus Judaeos, Oratio 2", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 5, pp. 23–49.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2002). "The sequence and dating of the series of John Chrysostom's eight discourses Adversus Judaeos", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, 90-116.
  • Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace (eds.) (1890). Socrates, Sozomenus: Church Histories (A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, second series, vol. II). New York: The Christian Literature Company.
  • Stark, Rodney (1997). The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. Princeton University Press.
  • Stephens, W.R.W. (1883). Saint John Chrysostom, His Life and Times. London: John Murray.
  • Stow, Kenneth (2006). Jewish Dogs, An Imagine and Its Interpreters: Continiuity in the Catholic-Jewish Encounter. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5281-8.
  • Wilken, Robert Louis (1983). John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Willey, John H. (1906). Chrysostom: The Orator. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham.
  • Thomas Woods (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, D.C.: Regenery. ISBN 0-89526-038-7
  • The priesthood: a translation of the Peri hierosynes of St. John Chrysostom, by WA Jurgens, (New York: Macmillan, 1955)
  • Commentary on Saint John the apostle and evangelist: homilies 1-47, translated by Sister Thomas Aquinas Goggin, Fathers of the Church vol 33, (New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc, 1957)
  • Commentary on Saint John the Apostle and Evangelist, translated by Sister Thomas Aquinas Goggin. Homilies 48-88, Fathers of the Church vol 41, (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1959) [translation of Homiliae in Ioannem]
  • Baptismal instructions, translated and annotated by Paul W Harkins, (Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1963)
  • Discourses against judaizing Christians, translated by Paul W Harkins., Fathers of the Church vol 68, (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1979)
  • The Epistles of John, translated with introduction, notes, and commentary by Raymond E Brown, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982)
  • On the incomprehensible nature of God, translated by Paul W Harkins. Fathers of the Church vol 72, (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1984)
  • On wealth and poverty, translated and introduced by Catharine P Roth, (Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984)
  • Chrysostom, John. Apologist. Margaret A. Schatkin and Paul W. Harkins, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. 1985. ISBN 0-8132-0073-3.  [translations of Discourse on blessed Babylas, and Against the Greeks: Demonstration against the pagans that Christ is God.]
  • Chrysostom, John. Homilies on Genesis. Robert C. Hill, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. 1986. ISBN 0-8132-0074-1.  [translation of Homilies on Genesis 1-17]
  • Chrysostom, John. On marriage and family life. Catherine P. Roth, trans. Crestwood, N.Y.: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1986. ISBN 0-913836-86-9. 
  • Samuel NC Lieu, ed, The Emperor Julian: panegyric and polemic. Claudius Mamertinus, John Chrysostom, Ephrem the Syrian, (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1986.) [contains translation of John Chrysostom, Homily on St. Babylas, against Julian and the pagans XIV-XIX]
  • Commentaries on the sages, translated with an introduction by Robert Charles Hill, 2 vols, (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006) [Vol 1 is a translation of the Commentary on Job; vol 2 is a translation of the Commentary on Proverbs]
  • Attwater, Donald. St. John Chrysostom: The Voice of Gold. London: Harvill. 1939. 
  • Baur, Chrysostomus. John Chrysostom and His Times. M. Gonzaga, trans 2nd. London: Sands. 1959. 
  • Lim, Richard. Public disputation, power, and social order in late antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1995. ISBN 0-585-16041-4. 

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