约翰一世 (君士坦丁堡牧首)

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聖金口若望
Saint John Chrysostom

東方:偉大的教父、普世聖師
西方: 主教教會聖師
出生 約347年[1]
安提阿
逝世 407年9月14日 [2]
本都科马纳·潘提卡英语Comana Pontica[3]
敬奉 正教會
東方正統教會
羅馬公教
東儀公教會
聖公會
信義會
列聖 五世紀中葉之前已被視為聖人
慶節 東方基督教
11月13日(君士坦丁堡教區)
1月27日(歸還聖髑)
1月30日(三聖教父節英语Three Holy Hierarchs)
西方基督教
9月13日(羅馬天主教聖人歷)
象徵 穿著主教的袍子, 握著四福音書卷軸, 舉右手作祝福狀;因齋戒而顯得憔悴的老人;蜂巢;白色的鴿子平底锅[4] 聖經上的聖爵英语chalice (cup)與墨水瓶
主保 君士坦丁堡, 教育, 癫痫, 講師英语lecturer, 演講者英语orator, 傳教者英语preacher [4]

金口若望希腊语Ιωάννης Χρυσόστομος,347年-407年),君士坦丁堡牧首约翰一世,因善雄辩而人稱为“金口”(χρυσόστομος,中文音譯為「屈梭多模」)。聖金口若望是重要的希腊教父,被许多教会封为圣人。他的遗骸曾于1204年被十字军掠至罗马,教皇若望·保禄二世于2004年归还了这批圣物。

生平[编辑]

「金口」若望約於350年生於安提阿,由他虔誠的母親阿修莎(Anthusa)撫養長大。他在十八歲那一年受洗,並且做了教會的宣讀員。他獨自在山洞裡過苦修的生活兩年,損害了自己的健康。他在安提阿作長老,後來在君士坦丁堡作主教長, [5]而且他也很熱心的推動了哥特人的規劃,不管是屬外教人或是屬亞流派的哥特人。

398年他被選為君士坦丁堡主教,目標是改善宮廷和社會腐敗的情況,然後改革社會。但是也因他誠懇的態度、苦修主義和沉實的性格召來了很多敵人。[6] 聖職人員嫌屈梭多模太嚴,提阿非羅主教忌妒他在安提阿任職。於403年召開橡樹莊會議,要把他免職,後來皇帝批准了,把他放逐

「金口」若望非常的勇敢,但是他卻缺乏機靈的講道又得罪了皇后,[7] 之後又被放逐到安提阿,然後遷至本都,最後因為被人的刻意安排之下,強迫他在惡劣的天氣之下徒步遠行,因而於407年去世了。

著作[编辑]

他的著作《論祭司》(On the Priesthood)描繪了牧者應盡的責任[8]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ The date of John's birth is disputed. For a discussion see Robert Carter, "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life", in Traditio 18:357–64 (1962); Jean Dumortier, "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome", in Mélanges de science religieuse, 8:51–56 (1951). Carter dates his birth to the year 349. See also Robert Louis Wilken, John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century, (Berkeley: University of California Press:1983), p.5.
  2. ^ "St John Chrysostom" in the Catholic Encyclopedia, available online. Retrieved March 20, 2007.
  3. ^ Newadvent.org
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Catholic-forum.com
  5. ^ 古勒本,《教會歷史》,李少蘭譯(香港:道聲出版社,2000),163。
  6. ^ 比爾‧奧斯丁,《基督教發展史》,馬傑偉、許建人譯(香港:種籽出版社,2002),107。
  7. ^ 陶理,《基督教兩千年史》,李伯明、林牧野合譯, (香港:海天書樓,2001,199。
  8. ^ 比爾‧奧斯丁,《基督教發展史》,107。

擴展閱讀[编辑]

  • Allen, Pauline and Mayer, Wendy (2000). John Chrysostom. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18252-2
  • Attwater, Donald (1960). St. John Chrysostom: Pastor and Preacher. London: Catholic Book Club.
  • Blamires, Harry (1996). The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Ulysses. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-15-3858-.
  • Brändle, R., V. Jegher-Bucher, and Johannes Chrysostomus (1995). Acht Reden gegen Juden (Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur 41), Stuttgart: Hiersemann.
  • Brustein, William I. (2003). Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77308-3
  • Carter, Robert (1962). "The Chronology of St. John Chrysostom's Early Life." Traditio 18:357–64.
  • Chrysostom, John (1979). Discourses Against Judaizing Christians, trans. Paul W. Harkins. The Fathers of the Church; v. 68. Washington: Catholic University of America Press.
  • Dumortier, Jean (1951). "La valeur historique du dialogue de Palladius et la chronologie de saint Jean Chrysostome." Mélanges de science religieuse, 8, 51–56.
  • Hartney, Aideen (2004). John Chrysostom and the Transformation of the City. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-520-04757-5.
  • Joyce, James (1961). Ulysses. New York: The Modern Library.
  • Kelly, John Norman Davidson (1995). Golden Mouth: The Story of John Chrysostom-Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop. Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3189-1.
  • Walter Laqueur (2006). The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times To The Present Day. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530429-2.
  • Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G. (1990) Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church and State in the Age of Arcadius and Chrysostom. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-814886-0.
  • Lewy, Yohanan [Hans] (1997). "John Chrysostom". 《猶太百科全書》 (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8.
  • Meeks, Wayne A., and Robert L. Wilken (1978). Jews and Christians in Antioch in the First Four Centuries of the Common Era (The Society of Biblical Literature, Number 13). Missoula: Scholars Press. ISBN 0-89130-229-8.
  • Palladius, Bishop of Aspuna. Palladius on the Life And Times of St. John Chrysostom, transl. and edited by Robert T. Meyer. New York: Newman Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8091-0358-3.
  • Parks, James (1969). Prelude to Dialogue. London.
  • Pradels, W. (2002). "Lesbos Cod. Gr. 27 : The Tale of a Discovery", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, pp. 81–89.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2001). "Das bisher vermisste Textstück in Johannes Chrysostomus, Adversus Judaeos, Oratio 2", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 5, pp. 23–49.
  • Pradels, W., R. Brändle, and M. Heimgartner (2002). "The sequence and dating of the series of John Chrysostom's eight discourses Adversus Judaeos", Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 6, 90-116.
  • Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace (eds.) (1890). Socrates, Sozomenus: Church Histories (A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, second series, vol. II). New York: The Christian Literature Company.
  • Stark, Rodney (1997). The Rise of Christianity. How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. Princeton University Press.
  • Stephens, W.R.W. (1883). Saint John Chrysostom, His Life and Times. London: John Murray.
  • Stow, Kenneth (2006). Jewish Dogs, An Imagine and Its Interpreters: Continiuity in the Catholic-Jewish Encounter. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5281-8.
  • Wilken, Robert Louis (1983). John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Willey, John H. (1906). Chrysostom: The Orator. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham.
  • Thomas Woods (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, D.C.: Regenery. ISBN 0-89526-038-7
  • The priesthood: a translation of the Peri hierosynes of St. John Chrysostom, by WA Jurgens, (New York: Macmillan, 1955)
  • Commentary on Saint John the apostle and evangelist: homilies 1-47, translated by Sister Thomas Aquinas Goggin, Fathers of the Church vol 33, (New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc, 1957)
  • Commentary on Saint John the Apostle and Evangelist, translated by Sister Thomas Aquinas Goggin. Homilies 48-88, Fathers of the Church vol 41, (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1959) [translation of Homiliae in Ioannem]
  • Baptismal instructions, translated and annotated by Paul W Harkins, (Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1963)
  • Discourses against judaizing Christians, translated by Paul W Harkins., Fathers of the Church vol 68, (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1979)
  • The Epistles of John, translated with introduction, notes, and commentary by Raymond E Brown, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982)
  • On the incomprehensible nature of God, translated by Paul W Harkins. Fathers of the Church vol 72, (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1984)
  • On wealth and poverty, translated and introduced by Catharine P Roth, (Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984)
  • Chrysostom, John. Apologist. Margaret A. Schatkin and Paul W. Harkins, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. 1985. ISBN 0-8132-0073-3.  [translations of Discourse on blessed Babylas, and Against the Greeks: Demonstration against the pagans that Christ is God.]
  • Chrysostom, John. Homilies on Genesis. Robert C. Hill, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. 1986. ISBN 0-8132-0074-1.  [translation of Homilies on Genesis 1-17]
  • Chrysostom, John. On marriage and family life. Catherine P. Roth, trans. Crestwood, N.Y.: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1986. ISBN 0-913836-86-9. 
  • Samuel NC Lieu, ed, The Emperor Julian: panegyric and polemic. Claudius Mamertinus, John Chrysostom, Ephrem the Syrian, (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1986.) [contains translation of John Chrysostom, Homily on St. Babylas, against Julian and the pagans XIV-XIX]
  • Commentaries on the sages, translated with an introduction by Robert Charles Hill, 2 vols, (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006) [Vol 1 is a translation of the Commentary on Job; vol 2 is a translation of the Commentary on Proverbs]
  • Attwater, Donald. St. John Chrysostom: The Voice of Gold. London: Harvill. 1939. 
  • Baur, Chrysostomus. John Chrysostom and His Times. M. Gonzaga, trans 2nd. London: Sands. 1959. 
  • Lim, Richard. Public disputation, power, and social order in late antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1995. ISBN 0-585-16041-4. 

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