蘇聯佔領波羅的海國家

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占领波罗的海国家指的是1940年6月14日[1][2]苏联根据苏德互不侵犯条约军事占领波罗的海三国爱沙尼亚拉脱维亚立陶宛)这一事件,随后三国即被并吞并成为了苏联加盟共和国[3]。1941年6月22日,纳粹德国实施巴巴罗萨行动对苏联发起攻击,并在数周内占领波罗的海国家。1941年7月,波罗的海地区为第三帝国奧斯蘭總督轄區所管理。1944年波羅的海攻勢行动后,苏军重新占领波罗的海地区,并将剩余德军围困于库尔兰口袋中,直至其1945年5月的正式投降[4]。苏联对波罗的海国家的占领则一直维持至1991年8月波罗的海国家重获独立为止。

波羅的海三國[5][6]、美國[7][8]及其法院[9]歐洲議會[10][11][12]歐洲人權法院[13]以及聯合國人權法院[14]均表明三國的權益在1939年蘇德互不侵犯條約受剝奪,先遭蘇聯入侵,再遭德國入侵,然後被蘇聯非法佔領及吞併[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]。各國和組織對蘇聯吞併的不承認政策,衍生出國體連續的原則,即三國雖然於1940年至1991年被非法佔領,在法理上仍然獨立[24][25][26]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein. Estonia: return to independence. Westview Press. 1993: 58. ISBN 9780813311999. 
  2. ^ Ziemele, Ineta. State Continuity, Succession and Responsibility: Reparations to the Baltic States and their Peoples?. Baltic Yearbook of International Law (Martinus Nijhoff). 2003, 3: 165–190. 
  3. ^ Kavass, Igor I. Baltic States. W. S. Hein. 1972. "The forcible military occupation and subsequent annexation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union remains to this day (written in 1972) one of the serious unsolved issues of international law" 
  4. ^ Davies, Norman. Dear, Ian, 编. The Oxford companion to World War II. Michael Richard Daniell Foot. Oxford University Press. 2001: 85. ISBN 9780198604464. 
  5. ^ The Occupation of Latvia at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia
  6. ^ 22 September 1944 from one occupation to another. Estonian Embassy in Washington. 2008-09-22 [2009-05-01]. "For Estonia, World War II did not end, de facto, until 31 August 1994, with the final withdrawal of former Soviet troops from Estonian soil." 
  7. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand; Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons. Encyclopedia of Soviet law. BRILL. 1985: 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9. "On March 26, 1949, the US Department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls." 
  8. ^ Fried, Daniel. U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship. June 14, 2007 [2009-04-29]. "From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands." 
  9. ^ Lauterpacht, E.; C. J. Greenwood. International Law Reports. Cambridge University Press. 1967: 62–63. ISBN 0-521-46380-7. "The Court said: (256 N.Y.S.2d 196) " The Government of the United States has never recognized the forceful occupation of Estonia and Latvia by the Soviet Union of Socialist Republics nor does it recognize the absorption and incorporation of Latvia and Estonia into the Union of Soviet Socialist republics. The legality of the acts, laws and decrees of the puppet regimes set up in those countries by the USSR is not recognized by the United States, diplomatic or consular officers are not maintained in either Estonia or Latvia and full recognition is given to the Legations of Estonia and Latvia established and maintained here by the Governments in exile of those countries" 
  10. ^ Motion for a resolution on the Situation in Estonia by the European Parliament, B6-0215/2007, 21.5.2007; passed 24.5.2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  11. ^ Dehousse, Renaud. The International Practice of the European Communities: Current Survey. European Journal of International Law. 1993, 4 (1): 141 [2006-12-09]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). 
  12. ^ European Parliament. Resolution on the situation in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. Official Journal of the European Communities. C. January 13, 1983,. 42/78. 
  13. ^ European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States
  14. ^ Seventh session Agenda item 9. United Nations, Human Rights Council, Mission to Estonia. 17 March 2008 [2009-05-01]. "The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939 assigned Estonia to the Soviet sphere of influence, prompting the beginning of the first Soviet occupation in 1940. After the German defeat in 1944, the second Soviet occupation started and Estonia became a Soviet republic." 
  15. ^ Mälksoo, Lauri. Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Leiden – Boston: Brill. 2003. ISBN 90-411-2177-3. 
  16. ^ "The Soviet Red Army retook Estonia in 1944, occupying the country for nearly another half century." (Frucht, Richard, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, 2005 ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6, p. 132
  17. ^ Russia and Estonia agree borders. BBC. 18 May 2005 [April 29, 2009]. "Five decades of almost unbroken Soviet occupation of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania ended in 1991" 
  18. ^ Country Profiles: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania at UK Foreign Office
  19. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia ISBN 0-7166-0103-6
  20. ^ The History of the Baltic States by Kevin O'Connor ISBN 0-313-32355-0
  21. ^ Saburova, Irina. The Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States. Russian Review (Blackwell Publishing). 1955, 14 (1): 36–49. doi:10.2307/126075. JSTOR 126075. 
  22. ^ See, for instance, position expressed by the European Parliament, which condemned "the fact that the occupation of these formerly independent and neutral States by the Soviet Union occurred in 1940 following the Molotov/Ribbentrop pact, and continues." European Parliament. Resolution on the situation in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. Official Journal of the European Communities. C. January 13, 1983,. 42/78. 
  23. ^ "After the German occupation in 1941–44, Estonia remained occupied by the Soviet Union until the restoration of its independence in 1991." KOLK AND KISLYIY v. ESTONIA, [1] (European Court of Human Rights 17 January 2006).
  24. ^ David James Smith, Estonia: independence and European integration, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0-415-26728-5, pXIX
  25. ^ Parrott, Bruce. Reversing Soviet Military Occupation. State building and military power in Russia and the new states of Eurasia. M.E. Sharpe. 1995: 112–115. ISBN 1-56324-360-1. 
  26. ^ Van Elsuwege, Peter. Russian-speaking minorities in Estonian and Latvia: Problems of integration at the threshold of the European Union. Flensburg Germany: European Centre for Minority Issues. 2004.April: 2. "The forcible incorporation of the Baltic states into the Soviet Union in 1940, on the basis of secret protocols to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, is considered to be null and void. Even though the Soviet Union occupied these countries for a period of fifty years, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania continued to exist as subjects of international law."