^Lindsay, Jon R.; Cheung, Tai Ming; Reveron, Derek S. China and Cybersecurity Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain. Oxford University Press. 2015: 267. ISBN 978-0-19-020127-2（英语）. In the perceived contest for ideological dominance being waged online as well as offline, the phrase “foreign hostile forces” (or “Western anti-China forces”) to describe the nebulous threat actors and principles challenging CCP doctrine and authority, resulting in security compromise. This concept sidesteps the fact that many incidents attributed to foreign hostile foces stem from legitimate grievances raised by individuals within China concerning the realization of their human rights.