高丽大藏经

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高丽大藏经
联合国教科文组织认定的世界遗产
Korea-Haeinsa-Tripitaka Koreana-01.jpg
高丽大藏经
正式名稱
英文名稱* Tripitaka Koreana
法文名稱* Tripitaka Koreana
基本資料
國家  大韓民國
地区** 亚洲和太平洋地区
註冊類型 文化遺產
評定標準 文化遺產iv, vi
註冊歷史
註冊年份 1995年
其他
UNESCO的记录(英文)
* 名稱依據世界遺產名錄註冊。
** 地區以聯合國教科文組織所劃分为准。
高丽大藏经
谚文 팔만 대장경
고려 대장경
汉字 八萬大藏經
高麗大藏經
文观部式 Palman Daejanggyeong
Goryeo Daejanggyeong
马-赖式 P'alman Taejanggyŏng
Koryŏ Taejanggyŏng

高丽大藏经,又称八萬大藏经,是13世纪高丽王朝高宗用16年时间雕刻成的世界上最重要和最全面的大藏经之一。高丽大藏经内容全面,准确无误,做工精美,为韩国第32号国宝。其保存地韩国海印寺联合国教科文组织指定的世界遗产

高丽大藏经共有1496章,6568卷,52382960汉字,雕刻于81340块木板上。每块木板长24厘米,宽60厘米,高2.6-4.0厘米,重量在3到4公斤。高丽大藏经涵括北宋契丹高丽的大藏经版本,並有高麗高僧所添加的內容,对了解古代中国和契丹的大藏经具有很高的历史价值。[1]

高麗大藏經在1962年被列入大韓民國國寶,並在2007年列入聯合國教科文組織世界記憶名錄[2][3]

歷史[编辑]

高麗大藏經第1371頁

高麗大藏經最早在1087年雕成,稱為初雕版。在1232年,因蒙古軍入侵高麗,初雕版被燒燬。高麗高宗為祈願降伏蒙古軍,於高宗23年(1236年)再次雕造大藏經。於江都設立大藏都監,於晉州南海縣進行雕造,經16年,於高宗38年(1251年)完工。此版稱為再雕版高麗大藏經,即是現存的八萬大藏經。

高麗大藏經經板原先藏於江都大藏經板堂,在14世紀中葉,為躲避日本人入侵,移置於海印寺,流傳至今。


Work on the first Tripitaka Koreana began in 1011 during the Goryeo–Khitan War and was completed in 1087.[4] The act of carving the woodblocks was considered to be a way of bringing about a change in fortune by invoking the Buddha's help.[5][6] The first Tripitaka Koreana was based primarily on the Northern Song Tripitaka completed in the 10th century,[7][8] but other scriptures published until then, such as the Khitan Tripitaka, were also consulted in order to identify items in need of revision and adjustment.[4] The first Tripitaka Koreana contained around 6,000 volumes.[4]

The original set of woodblocks was destroyed by fire during the Mongol invasions of Korea in 1232, when Goryeo's capital was moved to Ganghwa Island during nearly three decades of Mongol incursions, although scattered parts of its prints still remain. To once again implore divine assistance with combating the Mongol threat, King Gojong thereafter ordered the revision and re-creation of the Tripitaka; the carving began in 1237 and was completed in 12 years,[9] with support from Choe U and his son Choe Hang,[10] and involving monks from both the Seon and Gyo schools. This second version is usually what is meant by the Tripitaka Koreana.[11] In 1398, it was moved to Haeinsa, where it has remained housed in four buildings.

The production of the Tripitaka Koreana was an enormous national commitment of money and manpower, according to Robert Buswell, perhaps comparable to the US missions to the Moon in the 1960s.[12] Thousands of scholars and craftsmen were employed in this massive project.[11]

組成[编辑]

高麗大藏經可分成三個部份,第一部份是高麗高宗時期所造本藏,共1513部6807卷。第二部份是清同治四年(1865年),海冥壯雄撰補遺目錄中,增列的15部236卷。第三部份,則是將近一萬塊的雜版。

現代版[编辑]

現代版有47卷,總共1,514本。

標題
32 1064 由慧苑撰寫: 諺文標題: 신역 대방광불 화엄경 음의, 漢字標題: 新譯大方廣佛華嚴經音義
34 1257 後晉僧人可洪撰寫: 漢字標題: 新集藏經音義隨函錄
35 1258 北宋太宗撰寫 (976–997): 漢字標題: 御製蓮華心輪回文偈頌
35 1259 太宗撰寫: 漢字標題: 御製秘藏詮
35 1260 太宗撰寫: 漢字標題: 御製逍遙詠
35 1261 太宗撰寫: 漢字標題: 御製緣識
38 1402 高麗王朝高宗在擔任國王統治的第38年收集而撰寫 (1251年): 漢字標題: 高麗國新雕大藏校正別錄
39 1405 漢字標題: 大藏目錄
45 1500 連禪師高麗王朝高宗(1214年–1259年)在任期間收集以及在高麗王朝高宗35年9月(1248年)在慶尚道晉安全光宰出版附錄: 漢字標題: 南明泉和尚頌證道歌事實
45 1503 南唐(952年)李璟就任君主10年期間由張晩和兩名弟子靜和筠的幫助下所撰寫: 漢字標題: 祖堂集
45 1504 明朝期間由肇十程收集 (1368–1644): 漢字標題: 大藏一覽集
46 1505 Written by Hyesim in the 13th year of the reign of King Kojong of the Koryo Dynasty (1226): 漢字標題: 禪門拈頌集
47 1507 均如大師撰寫(923年–973年), of the Koryo Dynasty. Ch'ongi (天其) found this passage in Gap Temple (岬寺), in the spring of 1226: 漢字標題: 十句章圓通記
47 1508 由均如撰寫: 諺文標題: 석화엄지 귀장 원통초, 漢字標題: 釋華嚴旨歸章圓通鈔
47 1509 由均如撰寫: 諺文標題: 화엄경 삼보 장원통기, 漢字標題: 華嚴經三寶章圓通記
47 1510a 由均如撰寫: 諺文標題: 석화엄 지귀 장원통초, 漢字標題: 釋華嚴旨歸章圓通鈔
47 1510b Written by Hyŏk Yon-jong (赫連挺), the 1st month of the 29th year of the reign of King Munjong (文宗) of the Koryo Dynasty (1075). 漢字標題: 嚴首座圓通兩重大師均如傳幷序
47 1511 Total of Wang Tzu-ch'eng of the 元朝 (元) (1280–1368) with a foreword by Yi Sun-bo (李純甫) written in 2nd year of the reign of King Kangjong (康宗) of the Goryeo Dynasty (1213): 漢字標題: 禮念彌陀道場懺法
47 1514 目錄: 諺文標題: 고려 대장경 보유 목록, 漢字標題 高麗大藏經補遺目錄

相關條目[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Tripitaka Koreana at Haeinsa Temple. Cultural Properties Administration. [2008-04-14]. 
  2. ^ Printing Woodblocks of the Tripitaka Koreana in Haeinsa Temple, Hapcheon. Cultural Heritage Administration. Korea Tourism Organization. [1 October 2016]. 
  3. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Memory的参考文献提供内容
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Park, Sang-jin. Under the Microscope: The Secrets of the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. : 21 [30 July 2016]. ISBN 9781443867320 (英语). 
  5. ^ Turnbull. Page 41.
  6. ^ https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/handle/1773/24231/Hyun_washington_0250E_12384.pdf?sequence=1 p. 191.
  7. ^ Park, Jin Y. article "Buddhism in Korea" in Keown and Prebish 2010 : 451.
  8. ^ https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/handle/1773/24231/Hyun_washington_0250E_12384.pdf?sequence=1 p. 191.
  9. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为UNESCO_PDF的参考文献提供内容
  10. ^ Park, Sang-jin. Under the Microscope: The Secrets of the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. : 60 [30 July 2016]. ISBN 9781443867320 (英语). 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Jr, Robert E. Buswell; Jr, Donald S. Lopez. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. : 442–443 [1 October 2016]. ISBN 9781400848058 (英语). 
  12. ^ Bae, Ji-sook. Scholar suggests name change for Tripitaka Koreana. The Korea Herald. Herald Corporation. 3 September 2013 [30 September 2016]. 

引用作品[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]